How the Borks Became

An Adventure in Evolution

illustrated by Elys Dolan

“On a faraway planet, quite like our own Earth,
a bunch of Bork mothers has just given birth
to a great brood of Borklings, in all shapes and sizes.
Some look like their parents – but some are surprises.”

The Borks used to be smooth-furred, short-necked, blue creatures. So how did they get to be shaggy, long-necked and yellow? How the Borks Became introduces Charles Darwin’s world-changing theory of natural selection to children in an entertaining blend of science and storytelling.

“This fantastically funny tale combines humour, rhyming text and wonderfully vibrant illustrations to present evolution and natural selection in an accessible way.”

“Zany characters and joyous text combine into a thoughtful, lucid explanation of Darwin’s theory, so whether you’re a Y6 teacher starting this topic, or want to introduce younger children to the idea, there’s no better starting place.”

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Winner of
Best Early Years Book

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ISBN-10: 1910959197 • ISBN-13: 978-1910959190
ISBN-10:1910959669 • ISBN-13: 978-1910959664



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Author's Note

After thinking about writing a picture book about evolution for several years, I finally got around to doing it in 2013. When my children were in primary school the only explanations they had been taught for the creation of life on Earth were those given in Christian and Hindu religious texts. I’ve no objection to schools teaching children religious creation myths at this age but, if children are to develop a proper understanding of the natural world, schools ought to be teaching the evidence-based explanation of creation offered by science alongside these myths. Since September 2014 UK primary schools have been obliged to teach evolution to children in their final year (age 10-11 years). While this is a step in the right direction, research has shown that children are more likely to accept the rational, scientific explanation of creation presented by evolution if they are introduced to it at the beginning of their primary education, rather than at the end, by which time less-rational explanations (both religious and non-religious) have often established themselves in children’s minds.

Picture books can be a good way introduce the concept of evolution to young children. However, while there are plenty of picture books that show how evolution results in plants and animals changing their appearance over successive generations, there are very few picture books that explain the process by which these changes are brought about. And those picture books that do attempt an explanation are often inaccurate or misleading, suggesting that a species might change its appearance within a single lifetime or that the change might be brought about by a conscious effort by an individual animal.

It’s a common misconception that Charles Darwin discovered evolution, but the concept was established long before Darwin popularised it. Darwin’s breakthrough discovery was the process of natural selection whereby individuals best adapted to their environment are more likely to survive and pass on their advantageous features to the next generation. Having been unable to find a picture book that depicted this process accurately, I set out to write one myself.

To depict natural selection properly one has to show individuals with beneficial traits surviving, while other individuals, who lack these traits, are dying. The dispassionate depiction of creatures dying from hunger, predation or other environmental factors is the antithesis of the reassuringly safe, peril-free world that the vast majority of picture books present to young readers, so I decided that the book needed a strong dose of humour to lighten the tone. In an attempt to achieve this, I drew inspiration from Dr. Seuss, whose rhyming stories often introduced children to important concepts in an amusing and engaging way. My personal favourites include The Sneetches, a laugh-out-loud story that deftly deals with both racism and consumerism, and The Lorax, which tackles environmental issues in a similar way.

The stories of Dr. Seuss, including The Sneetches and The Lorax, were an inspiration for the book’s text.

Both the Sneetches and the Lorax are fantasy creatures and I decided that – although books about evolution are usually found in the non-fiction section – the animals I would use to explain it would also be fictional. So the book is set on the Earth-like Planet Charleebob (named after Charles Robert Darwin) and follows the evolution of a species of llama-like alien creatures called Borks. One big advantage of using a fictional species and setting was that it gave me licence to represent the process of natural selection in a speeded-up, caricatured form over just four generations of Borks. A page at the end of the book explains that evolution on Earth happens at a far slower rate with much smaller changes and that it might take an Earth animal millions of years to change as much as the Borks in the story do.

Writing the text turned out to be relatively quick and easy compared with finding a publisher. One of the first publishers I showed the text to told me that she could not envisage how it could work as a picture book, so I illustrated a few of the spreads myself to get the concept across. Another publisher told me that the book needed at least one character that survived from beginning to end, so I wrote an alternative draft featuring a Doctor-Who-like time traveller with a boy and girl companion, to narrate the story from start to finish.

One of the sample spreads I illustrated myself, to show how the book might work on the page.

Usually, if a picture book does not find a publisher after about a year, I stop pitching it. However How the Borks Became was a project close to my heart and my supportive agent Caroline Walsh and I continued to show the text to anyone and everyone we thought might be interested for three years before the book was finally accepted by Janetta Otter-Barry for her newly-founded publishing company Otter-Barry Books. One of the last books Janetta had published in her former role as publisher at Frances Lincoln was The Story of Life, an excellent picture book illustrating the timeline of evolution of life on Earth by Catherine Barr, Steve Williams and Amy Husband, so I knew the Borks were in safe hands.

Janetta accepted the book on the condition that we found a suitable illustrator. I’d tried to make the text both amusing and educational and I felt the book needed an illustrator that could bring a strong element of humour to the illustrations as well. I told Janetta that ideally the book should be illustrated by someone like Elys Dolan. Although I’d previously worked with Elys on The Clockwork Dragon, I doubted she’d be interested in doing another book she had not written herself as she’d plenty of picture book ideas of her own to keep her busy. However I decided that there was no harm in asking her and Janetta agreed. To my delight Elys said that How the Borks Became sounded like an exciting project and agreed to come on board!

If you’re familiar with Elys’s other books, you’ll know that she excels at creating spreads crammed with amusing detail and she brought a similar approach to her illustrations for How the Borks Became, inventing a lively alien ecosystem for the Borks to inhabit. In addition to the five plants and animals referenced in my text and illustration notes, Elys created a further ten lifeforms that can be seen evolving (or in one case going extinct) alongside the Borks. You can find the names of all fifteen species and a little information on each in the explorer notes on the book’s endpapers. My favourite creature is the magnificently sinister Ravenous Snarfle (see spread image above), that deserves a book all to itself.

The book’s endpapers feature explorer notes on the species featured in Elys’ illustrations.

Shortly after Elys came on board I read a Guardian article about a team of developmental psychologists at Boston University who had been researching how picture books could be used to teach natural selection to 5-8-year-olds. Like me, the team had been unable to find a picture book that depicted natural selection accurately, and like me, the team had developed their own, called How the Piloses Evolved Skinny Noses. The Piloses picture book is aimed at a slightly older age group than How the Borks Became and illustrates the process in a more detailed, less caricatured way, but both books take a similar approach. Like the Borks book, the Piloses book follows the evolution of a fictional creature. The Boston team had opted to use a fictional species because their research had shown that children are more likely to have preconceived ideas about real animals. The team’s research had also shown that children were able to retain and generalise the understanding of natural selection they’d learnt from the Piloses book and apply the same principle to other fictional animals.

The approach taken by the Boston team’s book seemed so similar to the one taken by How the Borks Became that I sent team leader Deborah Kelemen a copy of my text along with Elys’ initial character sketches in the hope that she might be willing to give us some feedback in light of their research, which Deborah graciously agreed to do. Deborah and her team continued to give us feedback as we developed our book.

Boston University psychologist Deborah Kelemen with her own book, How the Piloses Evolved Skinny Noses. You can find out more about the book and the research behind it at

How the Borks Became was not an easy project to get published, but it’s a book I’m especially proud of. So now it’s finally in print, I’d like to give a HUGE RAVENOUS-SNARFLE-SIZED THANK YOU to my agent Caroline for persistently pitching it to publishers, to publisher-editor Janetta for recognising and honing its potential, to illustrator Elys for breathing weird and wonderful life into Planet Charleebob and to everyone else that helped the Borks evolve from a fanciful idea to a fabulous finished picture book!


How do you go about explaining crucial yet complex scientific concepts such as natural variation and evolution to children? Jonathan Emmett’s brilliantly funny rhyming story tells the tale of the Borks, Who used to be blue with smooth fur and short necks, but are now tall, shaggy and yellow. “What caused all these changes? What brought them about? Well, we’ll have to go back a few years to find out…”. Children will adore the Seuss-style rhymes, which are begging to be read aloud. Let Elys Dolan’s delightfully detailed illustrations take your class on a journey to see how weather conditions, predators and food sources all play their part in the process. The success of Emmett’ s tale is that the zany characters and joyous text combine into a thoughtful, lucid explanation of Darwin’s theory, so whether you’re a Y6 teacher starting this topic, or want to introduce younger children to the idea, there’s no better starting place.

Evolution can be a difficult concept to explain to children, but this amusing picture book presents it beautifully … this fantastically funny tale combines humour, rhyming text and wonderfully vibrant illustrations to present evolution and natural selection in an accessible way.

We found that the more we read it and looked at the pages, the more questions we had about evolution. I was surprised by how engaged the children were with the story and how much they were able to understand, and we have since gone on to explore evolution more. It breaks down a tricky concept in a way that is approachable for younger children – and you can look for rainbow dungs on most pages (win-win). Although it’s aimed at younger children, I believe this book could be used through to Year 6 to introduce such a complex subject … The children in my class have responded fantastically to it and it has become a regular in our shared reading time.
Isobel Potter, Year 1 and 2 Teacher, TIMES EDUCATIONAL SUPPLEMENT

Rhyming text is used throughout the book, which gives it the feeling of a Dr. Seuss book. This also means that it is a great book for reading aloud and it is the kind of book that encourages a lot of discussion … A quirky palette of colour is used to create bright and funny illustrations, with plenty to discover on each page … How the Borks Became is a great example of how humour, inventiveness and illustration can be used to explain difficult concepts to younger children.

A funny, accessible introduction to the concept of evolution and natural selection,
using the fantastical creaturesof the Planet Charlebob. Dolan’s pictures are a riot.